CAMELS  
 

1.Ears
A camel's ears are small. but its hearing is acute - even if , like the donkey or basset hound, it chooses to pay no attention when given a command! A camel's ears are lined with fur to filter out sand and dust blowing into the ear canal.

2. Eyes
A camel's eyes are large, with a soft, doe like expression. They are protected by a double row of long curly eyelashes that also help keep out sand and dust, while thick bushy eyebrows shield the eyes from the desert sun. They are always in a pose of contempt.

3. Nose
One important feature of the nose, is the presence of two nose flaps that close during sandstorms. A line of fine hair allows breathing to continue while keeping the sand out. The other feature, used to control the camel, is the use of a nose peg or ring to which is tied a long thin rope. As with horses, when the nose is pinched or squeezed, it creates much discomfort while releasing a hormone which settles the camel. Even the largest animal  thinks twice about defying this simple device.

4. Mouth
The camel has a large mouth, with 34 sharp teeth. They enable the animal to eat rough thorny bushes without damaging the lining of its mouth, and can be used as biting weapons against predators if need be. A camel gulps down its food without chewing it first, later regurgitating the undigested food and chewing it in cud form. Always when its mouth is at rest, it grins a knowing grin. It is said that God, who in the Islamic faith is known by 99 names, made known only to the camel the 100th.

5. Throat
The throat houses the dulla, a hollow sac which the male camel throws out in a display dominance, often during the rutting season, at the same time burbling - a disgusting sight to most human beings.

6. Neck
Powerful tendons keep the weight of the neck from pulling the head down. Unlike the giraffe, where the neck rises continuously just a slight angle off the vertical, part of the camel neck is in fact horizontal. It makes a big camel hard to handle if he or she wishes it otherwise. A reason for the use of the nose peg. It is a common sight at death for the neck to arch backwards, as these tendons contract, pulling the head around.

7. Feet
Camels have broad, flat, leathery pads with two toes on each foot., When the camel places its foot on the ground the pads spread, preventing the foot from sinking into the sand. When trotting [pacing], the camel moves both feet on one side of its body, then both feet on the other. This gait suggests the rolling motion of a boat, explaining the camel's 'Ship of the Desert' nickname.

8. Padded Joints/Hard Skin
Thick callus-like bare spots of dry skin appear on a camel's chest and knee joints when the animal reaches five months of age. These leathery patches help support the animal's body weight when kneeling, resting and rising.

9. Legs
A camel's long, thin legs have powerful muscles which allow the animal to carry heavy loads over long distances. To lift its load, the muscles and strong tendons act in a cantilever manner. A camel can carry as much as 450kgs/990lbs, but a usual and more comfortable cargo weight is 150kgs/330lbs. It is usual for a camel to work as a beast of burden for only 6 to 8 months of the year, the remainder of the time it needs to rest and recuperate.

10. Tail
Like all tails, it keeps the flies away, aids in cooling and is held stiffly out during the rut when stimulated by the female. She in turns curls her tail after intercourse signalling enough is enough. When one male is confronting another male camel, especially during the rut, it flicks urine onto its back leaving a hormone laden swathe down the back - reasons unknown. It also serves one other important function, and that is when riding, depending on the saddle, it keeps it from moving forward.

11. Hump Contrary to popular belief
a camel does not store water in its hump. It is in fact a mound of fatty tissue from which the animal converts the fat to energy and water, when these are hard to find. When a camel uses its hump fat for sustenance, the mound becomes flabby and shrinks. If a camel draws too much fat, the small remaining lump will flop over from it's upright position and hang down the camel's side. Once well fed again, it returns to its original shape.

12. Heart
A 4 chambered organ known to mammals. It is a powerful pump employed in the task of pushing the blood over relatively great distances and heights.

13. Stomach
Although Camalidae are ruminating animals they are not classified as Ruminantia. They differ from true ruminants in that they walk on the pads of the two last digits in instead of on the sole of the hoof, they have no horns or antlers and they have a different stomach system. The glandular sacs on the first section of the 'rumen' serve to extract out fluids and solutes as they are pressed into the glandular sacs for potential absorption, thus selectively retaining larger feed particles in the fore stomach for prolonged microbial degradation.

14. Kidney
The camel exhibits superior water economy, more than most other dry land animals. Urine is concentrated, by reducing renal urine flow and by retaining metabolites in the body fluids.

15. Bladder
This also plays it role in water retention, although you would not at times think so.  A camel's 'peeing' session are notoriously time consuming, lasting for quite some time. It first finds the direction of the wind, positioning itself so that the spray is directed between its hind legs.

16. Intestines
Faecal water loss in camels is like the renal system  comparatively low due to the efficient reabsorption of water in the colon. Most droppings are hard relatively ordourless pellets, which can be recycled. They can be used for fuel [when dried], sand games eg. sheeza [similar to Chinese checkers], and in fact can be re-eaten by the camel, as often there remains undigested useful food bits and pieces.

17. Hair
All camels moult in spring and have grown a new coat by autumn. Camel hair is sought after world-wide  for high-quality coats, garments and artists' brushes, as well as being used to make traditional Bedouin rugs and tents. A camel can shed as much as 2.25 kilos/5 lbs of hair at each moult.

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